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when did the Testudo formation come into the main stay of the roman army?
No idea, sorry!
This is not a formation called Testudo.
i was asking when it came into play
I know.But why are you asking on it at the picture who is not showing shield formation known as Testudo?This is different formation a relative of more popularly famous Testudo,known as Fulcum.Fulcum very much replaced testudo in popularity during late antiquity.To your original question: It is not known with any certainity when exactly Romans started to use it and when it become a standard prcatice.Perhaps the earliest recorded instance it was used dates to the storming of Aquilonia in 293 BC.Our source for this is however Historian Livy who lived long after this in late Republican/early imperial Augustan Rome so we cant be really sure if it was just a work of his imagination or if he based this detail on much earlier sources.At any case if Livy is correct it would mean Tesdudo shield formation(Romans in fact did not use term Testudo/turrtle only on that famous formation but on some other things like protecting covers during sieges too)was already in use by 4th century BC.By the time of the 2nd Punic war it was quite likely a regular thing to use and normal thing by late republican period.If you are interrested also in when it stopped to be use-this is also shrouded in mystery same as its beginnings.Fulcum(mentioned for the first time at early 2nd century but not yet under name"fulcum") started to be more popular but Zosimus(writting at late 5th/early 6th century but relying on older authors)mentions Testudo being still in use by late 3rd century as it is present in his description of Aurelianus war with Zenobia.It is possible to find many shield covering formations in the works of late antiquity writers but it is usually impossible to know from very sketchy descriptions true nature of such formations and if some of them were oldschool Testudo.The latest known usage known to me dates to first years of the 6th century where Testudo is specifically mentioned(in its greek word equivalent but meaning the same "a turtle")during Anastasian Persian war.But description is again given only in very sketchy form so we could hardly be sure if 6th century author was having on mind really the old famos testudo or by now less famous but at his time commonly used similar(but not the same) formation known as Fulcum.Fulcum continued to be used in the armies of the eastern half of the Roman Empire deep into medieval times.
Definitely not.Triarii were used in completely different era and had different equipment.These are legionaries of the later 2nd century(with some errors).
I think it might actually be the early third century.
It is set precisely to the half of the 2nd century.I know it because I have original article this pic illustrates and mainly because Roman army is my hobby,Marcus Aurelius age among my major focuses. Swords are very typical for later Antonine period(although they might easily be still in use in earlier 3rd century as well) but as I said although picture is great it also includes some errors.
Elves of Thranduil, take note. This is how open-field combat works. No tactical advantage is derived from jumping over the shield wall.
you are a amazing artist !!!!
By the oval shape of the shields, am I to assume that these are meant to be legionaries of the Praetorian Guard?
No, as far as I know the oval shield was used quite extensively at certain periods - I'm not an expert though, mainly receiving guidance from the article author.
No they are ordinary legionaries.This shape of shield was used by common legionaries(together with other shapes-including rectangular so popular in pop culture)at this time.Shape of Republican shield that Praetorians possibly used for some time longer than legionaries was different from this shape.
Gorgeous detailing. But how they throw pilums in such close formation?
Thanks - these pilums and shields are to receive a charge (cavalry in this case) and defend against missiles - in these formations, the infantry further back would throw javelins instead, with archer support at the rear.
Greatest Military power of their time, and you have beautifully brought them to life. This is spectacular!
Awesome! I love all the detail.